Journal of Evolutionary Biology 2002, 15 (4), 595-607 . DOI: 10.1046/j.1010-061X.2002.00422.x


Sexually antagonistic selection on primate size

Supplementary material to Lindenfors P. Sexually antagonistic selection on primate size. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 2002; 15 (4): 595–607.

Appendix

Table A2  

SpeciesMating
system
Male
weight
(kg)
Female
weight
(kg)
Group
size
Female
sexual
maturity
(months)
Female
first
birth
(years)
Gestation
length
(days)
Number of
offspring
per litter
Interbirth
interval
(years)
Birth rate
(offspring/
(year)
Maximum
recorded
lifespan
(years)
Neonate
weight
(g)
Male
neonate
weight
(g)
Female
neonate
weight
(g)
Age at
weaning
(days)
Weight at
weaning
(kg)
Foetal
growth
rate
Postnatal
growth
rate
Lemur cattaMM2.212.2115.322.52.011351.31.500.8727.188.267.265135 0.85 
Hapalemur aureus 1.521.393 2.00  1     135   
Hapalemur griseusMon0.9870.9032.6 2.381401.5  1245.2  46 0.48 
Hapalemur simus 2.151.38              
Petterus coronatusMM1.691.628.4  1251.5   70    0.84 
Petterus mongozMon1.631.613.5 2.521281.1  25.335355.159.8166 0.46 
Petterus fulvusMM22.0779.222.02.161201.11.500.7330.0883.372.167.8135 0.76 
Petterus macacoMM2.372.518.424.02.18120111.0027.088862.750135 0.73 
Petterus rubriventerMon1.981.943.2  123    78.467.889135   
Varecia variegataMon3.473.515.320.01.951022.512.501387.293.778.490 2.14 
Lepilemur mustelinusUM  121.01.881351   27  75 0.20 
Daubentonia madagascarensisUM2.622.49229.01.9016712.500.4022.3109122102170 0.65 
Avahi lanigerMon1.031.322.5  235111.00    150   
Propithecus verrauxiMM3.252.95630.03.5016211.480.6818.1710794.5103.2180 0.66 
Propithecus diadema 5.946.265.1484.00179120.5020145155135180   
Propithecus tattersalliMM3.393.594.1  176       165   
Indri indriMon5.836.843.166.08.0016012.500.40 300  365 1.88 
Microcebus murinusUM0.0590.06319.51.00621.911.9015.427.17.24.640 0.22 
Microcebus rufusUM0.0430.0421  612          
Mirza coquereliUM0.3040.326111.51.9389.21.511.5015.2517.5  86 0.29 
Cheirogaleus major 0.4380.362   702.5  8.818.1  46 0.65 
Cheirogaleus mediusUM0.2830.2825.512.01.1962212.0091911.8 61 0.61 
Allocebus trichotisUM0.0920.0841              
Phaner furciferMon      1          
Galago alleniUM0.2770.26918.00.091331.311.301224    0.23 
Galagoides demidoffUM0.0630.0618.00.971111.211.20139.911.6 45 0.11 
Galagoides zanzibaricusUM0.1490.1371 1.001201.20.52.40 14.116.5   0.14 
Galago granti
Galago moholiUM0.1870.1731 1.0012320.54.0016.511.7511.711.899 0.19 
Galago senegalensisUM0.2270.19916.72.00124.21.550.513.0416.511.518.419.5101 0.14 
Otolemur crassicaudatusUM1.191.11112.02.211351.2511.251543.2  136 0.40 
Otolemur garnettiiUM0.7940.7341 1.25131.7111.001752  140 0.39 
Euoticus elegantulusUM0.2870.2611  1351          
Euoticus inustus 0.2070.2121              
Loris tardigradusUM0.1920.193113.01.501651.60.503.191211  169 0.11 
Arctocebus calabarensisUM0.3120.30619.51.1013410.382.661325.22737105 0.19 
Nycticebus coucangUM0.6790.626119 192.2111.001648.251.650.8189 0.25 
Nycticebus pygmaeusUM0.4620.37619.0 188 1.23 2023  133   
Perodictus pottoUM0.830.83618.02.03170111.0022.3346.539.338.9210 0.27 
Tarsius bancanusMon&UM0.1280.1171 2.5217810.741.351223.628.5 800.2560.130.82
Tarsius syrichta 0.1340.1171  1801  13.526.227.922.282 0.15 
Tarsius pumilus   1              
Tarsius spectrumMon0.1250.1082.514.01.4215710.422.401223.1  68 0.15 
Callithrix argentata 0.330.369.5 1.67 20.623.22 35.132 120  3.4
Callithrix humeraliferMon&PA0.360.3811.5      12.534.5      
Callithrix jacchusMon&PA0.3170.3248.722.01.501482.10.524.0311.72730.1530.2391 0.382.98
Cebuella pygmaeaMon&PA0.110.1225.724.01.881312.10.504.1911.671617.214.191 0.260.9
Leonthopithecus chrysomelas 0.620.5356.7              
Leonthopithecus chrysopygus   3.6              
Leonthopithecus rosaliaMon&PA0.620.5987.218.02.38128.61.780.503.5514.175053.652.491 0.692.56
Saguinus bicolor 0.4280.436.7    0.53         
Saguinus midasMon&PA0.5150.5756.420.02.0012720.553.6313.2540  70 0.63 
Saguinus leucopus 0.4940.49          44    
Saguinus oedipusMon&PA0.4180.4047.218.01.891681.90.583.2713.5444442.166 0.503.5
Saguinus imperatorMon&PA0.4740.4756  1502  1747 46.891 0.63 
Saguinus labiatusMon&PA0.490.5296.3  14520.822.44 43.5 38  0.60 
Saguinus mystaxMon&PA0.510.5395.516.0 145 0.96 20  46.9    
Saguinus fuscicollisMon&PA0.3430.3585.1 2.3314921.002.00 39.939.138.890 0.54 
Saguinus tripartitus          6       
Saguinus inustus 0.5850.803               
Saguinus nigricollisMM0.4680.4846.3  14020.692.9013.943.543.243.980 0.623.68
Callimico goeldiiMon0.4990.4687.78.51.32151.510.501.9917.950.654.753.3650.0670.332.95
Cebus albifronsMM3.182.2916.843.14.0215511.500.6744234237.5227.7274 1.514.7
Cebus capucinusUM3.682.542154.04.0016212.200.4646.9230 2505481.351.42 
Cebus olivaceusMM&UM3.292.5217.172.06.00 12.170.46    720   
Cebus apellaMM3.652.5211.156.05.5015511.840.5444239.7220.7197.13651.001.55 
Saimiri bolivensisMM0.9110.71160  155    102      
Saimiri oerstediiMM0.8970.6850   1          
Saimiri sciureusMM0.8990.683530.02.5016011.170.852195.2112.5106.4510.4790.601.78
Saimiri ustus 0.9210.799               
Saimiri vanzolinii 0.950.6540              
Aotus trivirgatusMon0.8130.7363.8302.4013310.701.4320978894750.4790.733.5
Aotus azaraeMon1.181.234.1              
Callicebus brunneusMon0.8540.8054   1          
Callicebus cinerascens
Callicebus molochMon1.020.9563.3303.00163.5111.0012100 74.4244 0.61 
Callicebus personatusMon1.271.383.7   1          
Callicebus hoffmannsi 1.091.03               
Callicebus calligatus
Callicebus cupreus 1.021.123.1  130 0.87  74      
Callicebus dubius
Callicebus donacophilus 0.9910.909               
Callicebus oenanthe
Callicebus olallae
Callicebus modestus
Callicebus torqatusMon1.281.214304.00 111.00    140   
Pithecia aequatorialisMon                 
Pithecia albicansMon  4.6              
Pithecia irrorataMon2.252.074.4              
Pithecia monachusMon2.612.114         121    
Pithecia pitheciaMon1.941.582.7 2.0816511.580.6313.75   122   
Cacajao calvusMM3.452.883043.23.50 1  20.1   547.5   
Cacajao rubicundusMM      130.33        
Cacajao melanocephalus 3.162.7130   1          
Chiropotes albinasusMM3.152.4922.5  1601  15       
Chiropotes satanasMM32.779.7  1601          
Alouatta belzebul 7.275.527.4              
Alouatta carayaMM&UM6.424.338.938.53.701871     262    
Alouatta fuscaMM6.734.356.8              
Alouatta palliataMM7.165.32313.736.03.601861.11.660.6620480  3651.102.84 
Alouatta seniculusMM&UM6.8735.3848.54.6019111.380.7225263231295372.3  3.5
Alouatta villosaMM&UM11.46.435.4484.50187   20480      
Ateles belzebuthMM8.297.8522   13.000.3320       
Ateles fuscicepsMM8.899.16 51.64.9022612.250.4424   485  6
Ateles geoffroyiMM7.787.294272.07.0022912.900.3527.3512447 8223.792.242.45
Ateles paniscusMM9.118.4438.557.65.0023014.000.2533452.5 425 2.00 3.41
Lagothrix flavicaudaMM  9.1          365   
Lagothrix lagothrichaMM7.287.0216.796.05.0022511.750.5725.92450510432315 2.00 
Brachyteles arachnoidesMM9.618.0719.2 7.50232.512.820.3530   639   
Macaca arctoidesMM12.28.4  3.84178.211.480.68304875024974112.302.736.43
Macaca assamensisMM11.36.921              
Macaca radiataMM6.673.8524.948.04.00163111.0030404411388365 2.484.37
Macaca sinicaMM5.683.221.663.05.00 11.500.6730       
Macaca thibetana 15.29.521 5.00170   20500   2.40  
Macaca cyclopsis 64.9420.230.04.50162 1.27  403407398    
Macaca fuscataMM118.034554.05.5417311.930.5233496558.3526.83652.402.876.27
Macaca mulattaMM9.3557.0853642.04.00164111.0029475490.3466.33161.332.904.39
Macaca fascicularisMM5.363.592751.63.8616711.070.9337.08345353.1326.14201.702.073.22
Macaca nemestrinaMM9.455.718.335.03.9217011.110.9026.29472483.6443.73651.322.782.6
Macaca maurus 9.726.05   175.51   390    2.22 
Macaca tonkeana 14.99   173           
Macaca nigraMM9.895.473549.05.4417611.480.6818461    2.62 
Macaca ochreata 5.32.6               
Macaca silenusMM8.96.126.5 4.9018011.380.7238407514438365 2.26 
Macaca sylvanusMM161118.346.04.80164.7111.0022450   2.42 4.28
Cercocebus albigenaMM8.256.0216.648.04.0818512.750.3632.7425  2102.202.305
Cercocebus aterrimusMM7.845.76               
Cercocebus galeritusMM9.615.2618.3 6.501711  19      4.04
Cercocebus torquatusMM9.475.526.832.04.6717111.080.9327 517     
Mandrillus leucophaeusUM  1742.05.0017611.230.8128.6  722    
Mandrillus sphinxUM31.612.913.939.04.00174.611.460.6843.336139068903503.003.516.52
Papio anubisMM23.1512.54057.56.9218011.710.584510689809154203.805.93 
Papio papioMM     18411.160.8640642.3681603.6  3.49 
Papio cynocephalusMM21.812.355.466.05.5017511.750.57408547378033653.034.885.1
Papio ursinusMM29.814.857.138.03.6718711.750.5745600 850    
Papio hamadryasUM18.9510.657.351.56.10172120.5035.6727.57606953653.104.23 
Theropithecus geladaUM1911.71049.54.0016712.140.4719.25464737 4503.902.78 
Cercopithecus aethiopsMM5.0233.45728.954.05.00163.311.330.7524314334.9335.93651.171.923.51
Cercopithecus ascaniusMM&UM3.72.9226.354.05.00 11.480.6722.5371  180   
Cercopithecus cephusUM4.292.881148.05.00 12.250.4422340  365  2.87
Cercopithecus erythrotisUM3.62.9    1      180   
Cercopithecus erythrogasterUM4.12.4               
Cercopithecus petauristaUM4.42.914              
Cercopithecus mitisUM7.6974.36316.370.55.9214011.670.6020402360495697 2.873.5
Cercopithecus nictitansUM6.674.261648.05.00 11.970.51   406   2.4
Cercopithecus campbelliUM4.52.71436.03.501801      540   
Cercopithecus monaUM      1  22284      
Cercopithecus dentiUM                 
Cercopithecus wolfiUM3.912.87        435      
Cercopithecus pogoniasUM4.262.91548.05.00165120.5020340    2.062.57
Cercopithecus neglectusMon&UM7.354.13562.34.6718211.620.62222604554503651.641.433.2
Cercopithecus hamlyniUM5.493.36               
Cercopithecus dianaUM5.23.923 5.42 111.0034.8475 460365   
Cercopithecus dryas
Cercopithecus salongo
Cercopithecus lhoestiUM5.973.4517.4   11.330.75        
Cercopithecus preussi   5              
Cercopithecus solatus 6.893.9210        382     
Erythrocebus patasUM12.46.52841.23.00167.511.220.8221.58504.55414682122.403.016.78
Miopithecus talapoinMM1.941.5611548.04.38165111.0027.67177.5  1800.0421.081.1
Allenopithecus nigroviridisMM6.133.1840 4.40 1  28  242    
Colobus angolensisMM9.687.5710.9   1          
Colobus guerezaMM&UM13.59.28.3 4.7517011.750.5722.25395.55965493901.60  
Colobus polykomosMM&UM9.98.310.2 8.5017011.040.9630.5597   1.243.516
Colobus satanasMM&UM10.47.4215.5  1951      480   
Colobus badiusMM8.368.2134424.0819812.130.47    788   
Colobus kirkii 5.85.46               
Procolobus verusMM4.74.26.3  1671          
Pygathrix avunculus 148.2525              
Pygathrix brelichi   6.1              
Pygathrix roxellanaMM17.911.6               
Pygathrix nemaeusMM&UM118.449.3484.0016511.360.7410.25393.5324463330 2.38 
Simias concolorMon&UM9.156.84.5              
Nasalis larvatusMM&UM20.49.8210.5484.5016611.480.6813.5525600  2.003.16 
Presbytis aurata   11              
Presbytis comataUM6.686.71    1          
Presbytis frontataMM&UM5.565.67               
Presbytis melalophosMM&UM6.596.4711.6   1          
Presbytis rubicundaMM&UM6.296.176.5   1          
Presbytis cristataUM6.615.7622.8   11.480.68        
Presbytis francoisi 7.77.35        457457457    
Presbytis geei 10.89.812.5   1          
Presbytis johniiUM1211.214.8   11.840.54  500     
Presbytis vetulusUM8.175.98.8  20911.730.58 447  2261.102.14 
Presbytis obscuraMM&UM7.96.2617  1501   485425341  3.23 
Presbytis phayeri 7.876.312.9  165 1.25         
Presbytis pileatusUM129.868.5              
Presbytis potenzianiMon6.176.43.7   1          
Presbytis entellusMM&UM14.53310.5332542.03.4219911.680.5925500  4562.10  
Hylobates agilisMon5.885.824.4   13.120.32    724   
Hylobates larMon5.95.343.9108.09.3121312.690.3731.54004004077301.071.883.12
Hylobates muelleriMon5.715.353.4    2.96 47       
Hylobates molochMon6.586.253.3   1  35   724   
Hylobates pileatusMon5.55.443.5      39       
Hylobates klossiMon5.675.923.6  210 3.29     724   
Hylobates hoolockMon6.876.883.684.0  12.960.3442   724   
Hylobates syndactylusMon11.910.73.6 9.0022813.000.3335517555552  2.27 
Hylobates concolorMon7.797.624   1  36   724   
Pongo pygmaeus(MM&) UM78.235.7184.09.68249.516.500.1557.33172819651653408.811.006.93 
Pan paniscusMM4533.285102.013.50240150.2040116214001494 8.504.8410.14
Pan troglodytesMM49.56740.36760126.014.00228160.175317421877181414608.507.6414.08
Homo sapiensMon (&UM)62.254.8 198.014.0026913.500.291003375345733347209.212.5516.41
Gorilla gorillaUM169.36780778.010.0426013.830.26502122.922511996100419.808.1715.32
Data sources: Adult weight data: Smith & Jungers (1997). Mating systems: Lindenfors & Tullberg (1998), Kappeler (1997). Age at female maturity: Bearder (1987), Fedigan & Rose (1995), Goldizen (1987), Melnick & Pearl (1987), Richard (1987), Roberts (1994), Robinson & Janson (1987), Robinson et al. (1987), Ross & Jones (1999), Rowe (1996), Stanger et al. (1995). Age at first birth: Bearder (1987), Bercovitch & Berard (1993), Fedigan & Rose (1995), Ross (1988, 1991, 1992), Ross & Jones (1999), Rowe (1996), Stanger et al. (1995). Gestation length: Bearder (1987), Fedigan & Rose (1995), Garber & Leigh (1997), Glander (1994), Goldizen (1987), Hartwig (1996), Harvey et al. (1987), Izard et al. (1988), Jantschke et al. (1995), Jurke (1996), Lee (1999), Matsumura (1993), Melnick & Pearl (1987), Roberts (1994), Robinson et al. (1987), Ross (1988, 1992), Rowe (1996), Stanger et al. (1995), Thierry et al. (1996). Number of offspring: Bearder (1987), Dietz et al. (1994), Harvey et al. (1987), Goldizen (1987), Roberts (1994), Ross (1988, 1991), Ross & Jones (1999), Rowe (1996), Stanger et al. (1995). Neonate weight: Garber & Leigh (1997), Glander (1994), Hartwig (1996), Lee (1999), Roberts (1994), Ross (1988, 1991, 1992), Smith & Leigh (1998). Interbirth intervals: Bearder (1987), Fedigan & Rose (1995), Goldizen (1987), Harvey et al. (1987), Izawa (1978), Jantschke et al. (1995), Lee (1999), Melnick & Pearl (1987), Richard (1987), Roberts (1994), Robinson et al. (1987), Ross (1988, 1992), Ross & Jones (1999), Rowe (1996). Age at weaning: Fedigan & Rose (1995), Garber & Leigh (1997), Harvey et al. (1987), Roberts (1994), Rowe (1996), Winn (1994). Weight at weaning: Lee (1999). Lifespan: Bearder (1987), Roberts (1994), Ross (1988, 1991, 1992), Ross & Jones (1999), Rowe (1996). Group size: Barton (1996), Kappeler & Heymann (1996), Koenig (1995). Postnatal growth rate: Ross (1991).

References

Barton, R.A. 1996. Neocortex size and behavioural ecology in primates. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 263: 173177.

Bearder, S.K. 1987. Lorises, bushbabies, and tarsiers: diverse societies in solitary foragers. In: Primate Societies (B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham & T. T. Struhsaker, eds). University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Bercovitch, F.B. & Berard, J.D. 1993. Life history costs and consequences of rapid reproductive maturation in female rhesus macaques. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 32: 103109.

Dietz, J.M., Baker, A.J. & Miglioretti, D. 1994. Seasonal variation in reproduction, juvenile growth, and adult body mass in golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia). Am. J. Primatol. 24: 115132.

Fedigan, L.M. & Rose, L.M. 1995. Interbirth interval variation in three sympatric species of neotropical monkey. Am. J. Primatol. 37: 924.

Garber, P.A. & Leigh, S.R. 1997. Ontogenetic variation in small-bodied New World primates: implications for patterns of reproduction and infant care. Folia Primatol. 68: 122.

Glander, K.E. 1994. Morphometrics and growth in captive aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis). Folia Primatol. 62: 108114.

Goldizen, A.W. 1987. Tamarins and marmorsets: communal care of offspring. In: Primate Societies (B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham & T. T. Struhsaker, eds). University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Hartwig, W.C. 1996. Perinatal life history traits in New World monkeys. Am. J. Primatol. 40: 99130.

Harvey, P.H., Martin, R.D. & Clutton-Brock, T.H. 1987. Life histories in a comparative perspective. In: Primate Societies (B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham & T. T. Struhsaker, eds). University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Izard, M.K., Weisenseel, K.A. & Ange, R.L. 1998. Reproduction in the slow loris (Nycticebus coucang). Am. J. Primatol. 16: 331339.

Izawa, K. 1978. A field study of the ecology and behavior of the black-mantled tamarin (Saguinus nigricollis). Primates 19: 241274.

Jantschke, B., Welker, C. & Klaiber, S.A. 1995. Notes on breeding of the titi monkey Callicebus cupreus. Folia Primatol. 65: 210213.

Jurke, M.H. 1996. Behavioral and hormonal aspects of reproduction in captive Goeldi's monkeys (Callimico goeldii) in a comparative and evolutionary context. Primates 37: 109119.

Kappeler, P.M. 1997. Intrasexual selection and testis size in strepsirhine primates. Behav. Ecol. 8: 1019.

Lee, P.C. 1999. Comparative ecology of postnatal growth and weaning among haplorhine primates. In: Comparative Primate Socioecology (P. C. Lee, ed.), pp. 111139. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Lindenfors, P. & Tullberg, B.S. 1998. Primate size evolution: the consequences of sexual selection. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 64: 413447.

Matsumura, S. 1993. Female reproductive cycles and the sexual behavior of moor macaques (Macaca maura) in their natural habitat, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Primates 34: 99103.

Melnick, D.J. & Pearl, M.C. 1987. Cercopithecines in multi-male groups: genetic diversity and population structure. In: Primate Societies (B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham & T. T. Struhsaker, eds). University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Richard, A.F. 1987. Malagasy prosimians: female dominance. In: Primate Societies (B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham & T. T. Struhsaker, eds). University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Roberts, M. 1994. Growth, development, and parental care in the western tarsier (Tarsius bancanus) in captivity: evidence for a 'slow' life-history and nonmonogamous mating system. Int. J. Primatol. 15: 128.

Robinson, J.G. & Janson, C.H. 1987. Capuchins, squirrel monkeys, and atelines: socioecological convergence with old world primates. In: Primate Societies (B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham & T. T. Struhsaker, eds), pp. 6982. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Robinson, J.G., Wright, P.C. & Kinzey, W.G. 1987. Monogamous cebids and their relatives: intergroup calls and spacing. In: Primate Societies (B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham & T. T. Struhsaker, eds), pp. 4453. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Ross, C. 1988. The intrinsic rate of natural increase and reproductive effort in primates. J. Zool. Lond. 214: 199219.

Ross, C. 1991. Life history patterns of new world monkeys. Int. J. Primatol. 12: 481502.

Ross, C. 1992. Environmental correlates of the intrinsic rate of natural increase in primates. Oecologia 90: 383390.

Ross, C. & Jones, K.E. 1999. Socioecology and the evolution of primate reproductive rates. In: Comparative Primate Socioecology (P. C. Lee, ed.), pp. 73110. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Rowe, N. 1996. The Pictoral Guide to the Living Primates. Pogonias Press, New York.

Smith, R.J. & Jungers, L. 1997. Body mass in comparative primatology. J. Hum. Evol. 32: 523559.

Smith, R.J. & Leigh, S.R. 1998. Sexual dimorphism in primate neonatal biomass. J. Hum. Evol. 34: 173201.

Stanger, K.F., Coffman, B.S. & Izard, M.K. 1995. Reproduction in Coquerel's dwarf lemur (Mirza coquereli). Am. J. Primatol. 36: 223237.

Winn, R.M. 1994. Development of behaviour in a young aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis) in captivity. Folia Primatol. 62: 93107.